Engineering Buro
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Bodo Ruck,
Rotenbueschle 11, 76228 Karlsruhe, Germany
  Tel.: +49 (0)721 47639511, bodo.ruck(@)t-online.de, www.bodoruck.de

 
   
The engineering buro Prof. Dr.-Ing. Bodo Ruck is working in the field of wind loads on technical and natural structures. There are several fields where the buro is spezialized in:

                                                         Wind loads on built structures
                                                         Wind loads on greening elements
                                                         Wind loads on trees in the facade of buildings
                                                         Wind sheltering by natural shelter belts

                                                         Wind actions on vehicles of all kind
                                                         Wind loads on objects (pedestrians, cyclists, walls..) induced by passing vehicles
                                                         Wind damage analyses due to strong or extreme winds

                                        

 
Homepage of the Laboratory of Building- and Environmental  Aerodynamics (directed by Prof. Ruck up to May 31, 2019)

L
ectures given by Prof. Ruck at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
:
 Umweltaerodynamik  (Environmental Aerodynamics) 
 
Gebäudeaerodynamik  (Building Aerodynamics)
 Strömungsmesstechnik   (Flow Measuring Techniques)
Literature
Recommendation for extreme storms
Data base 'VIPAS' neu
Data base 'CODASC'
Data base 'Backward facing step'

    Wind loads on built structures 
 
               
   
   

    Wind loads on greening elements

 

Wind loads on trees in the facade of buildings 
Extraordinary projects 
Bosco verticale created by Stefano Boeri/Milan                                                                   Fotos: Bodo Ruck
 
   
 

When trees are integrated into the façade of buildings, they must meet the same safety requirements as building parts such as technical façade elements, balconies, wind breakers, roofs, etc. The technical wind loading standard in Europe, which then also applies for integrated trees is:
EUROCODE  EN 1991-1-4: 2010  Actions on structures - Part 1-4: General actions - Wind actions.

That means that integrated trees have to withstand the same design wind velocities as the building or parts of it. The design velocities (gust velocities) are given in the EUROCODE and stem from meteorological observations carried out during decades. They are based on a 50 years’ return period (highest gust velocities measured within 50 years).

What makes the difference? Tree planting on plain ground or on a terrace of a high rise building.

The following example shows the significant difference between a tree (here: pinus nigra) planted on ground level in free undisturbed boundary layer flow and in the flow field on a terrace of a high rise building (assumed height: 50 m):
Planted on plain ground in free flow (no buildings):

height of crown center above ground level: 4,0 m
projected crown area: 5 m² 
lever arm height: 4,0 m
design wind according to EUROCODE:  typ. 27,58 m/s
amplification factor (no building, free standing single tree): 1,0
design speed:  27,58 m/s
horizontal drag force:  1,02 kN
moment at tree foot:  4,99 kNm
min. stem diameter  without safety:  12,59 cm
Planted on the terrace of a high rise building:

height of crown center above ground level:   50,0 m
projected crown area: 5,0 m² 
lever arm height: 4,0 m
design wind according to EUROCODE:  typ. 39,98 m/s
amplification factor (wind amplification at building): 1,5
specific design speed:  59,97 m/s
horizontal drag force:    4,83 kN
moment at tree foot:  23,59 kNm
min. stem diameter  without safety:  21,12 cm
  


As one might infer from these numbers, planting of trees in the building envelope is not straightforward, because the trees

a) are located at a height with much higher wind velocity than on plain ground.

b) must fulfill the wind load standards as a building component (wind load e.g. due to EUROCODE).
b) are exposed to additional wind loads due to wind amplification at the building.
c) are subject to an additional safety factor application.
 


To deal with these restrictions and to render possible a planting of trees in the envelope of buildings, special nursery strategies and securing measures at the building have to be taken. A collaboration of a specialized engineering buro and
an experienced botanist's office is essential.


  
Wind sheltering by natural shelter belts

Shelter belts are used to calm surfaces in agriculture and industry. In order to protect also larger areas from wind, the shelter belts are planted on piled-up walls (mounds).
 



By adequate dimensioning of protection volumes, actuating surfaces of industry and trade can be wind-calmed.

  Wind actions on vehicles of all kind
     
https://www.windforschung.de/bilder_orginale/Lichtschnitt/BW4.jpg
 
     
   Wind loads on objects (pedestrians, cyclists, walls..) induced by passing vehicles  
     
 
 
       
     
Imprint       Data Protection     Literature  
   
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